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Hazardous Waste Terms

Welcome to our glossary of hazardous waste terms. We created this data base to help you better understand…. Click the alphabetical below menu to learn more about…

Welcome to our glossary of hazardous waste terms. We created this data base to help you better understand…. Scroll down to learn more about…

A

Abandoned Materials

A Solid Waste is a Discarded Material (that is not exuded by regulation). A Discarded Material is Abandoned, Recycled, inherently waste-like, or a Military munition.

A solid waste is Abandoned if it is:

  • Disposed of,
  • Burned or Incinerated,
  • Accumulated, stored, or treated (not recycled) before or in lieu of being abandoned by being disposed or, burned, or incinerated.
  • Also see Discarded Material
Accumulation

A generator may accumulate hazardous waste for a short period of time before managing it on-site or shipping it off-site. The waste must be accumulated in either tanks, containers or drip-pads; it may not be accumulated in surface impoundments.

There are two kinds of Accumulation:

  • see Satellite Accumulation Area
  • see Hazardous Waste Storage Area (Central Accumulation Area

 

Accumulation Time

Waste accumulation time depends on your generator status (see below). Generators may receive a 30-day extension for the accumulation of hazardous waste if uncontrollable and/or unforeseen circumstances cause them to accumulate waste on site for longer than the permissible time. Such an extension cay be granted by a Regional Administrator or authorized state.

  • Small Quantity Generators (SQG) may accumulate/store waste for no more than 180 days, unless the waste must be transported 200 miles or more to a TSDF: then the limit is 270 days.
  • Large Quantity Generators (LQG) may accumulate/store waste for no more than 90 days.
Acute Hazardous Waste

Are Hazardous Wastes that have been determined to pose a severe risk to human health and the environment even when properly managed.

Acute Hazardous Waste are toxic to humans in low doses and/or short exposure times.

Small quantities of Acute Hazardous Waste can subject facilities to the more stringent regulatory requirements. A generator who accumulates >2.2 lbs. of acutely hazardous waste would become a large quantity generator (LQG).

Acute Hazardous Wastes include all P-Listed hazardous wastes as well as those F-Listed wastes (F020-F023 and F026-F027) from non-specific sources that are dioxin-related

Are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA)

Annual Report

Oregon – All small and large quantity hazardous waste generators are required to submit an annual report to DEQ. The report is due March 1st of every year and provides information on activities of the previous calendar year.

Washington – The dangerous waste annual report is a combination of required forms and other documents that summarize your dangerous waste activities in Washington state. If you have an active EPA/State Identification (ID) Number, then you must submit a dangerous waste annual report. Reports are due March 1 each year.

Idaho – Hazardous Waste Generator Annual Reports are submitted by all large quantity hazardous waste generators (LQGs) and small quantity hazardous waste generators (SQGs), as and commercial hazardous waste disposal facilities. Reports are due March 1 each year.

B

Beneficial Use

Utilization or reuse of a material that would otherwise have become a Solid Waste. Such as reusing a spent material as an ingredient in an industrial process to make a product or as an effective substitute for a commercial product, without reclamation.

  • Examples include: landfill cover, aggregate substitute, fuel substitute or the feedstock in a manufacturing process.

EPA – Beneficial reuse is reusing a waste material, that would otherwise be discarded, in a manner that makes it a valuable commodity.

Oregon – Beneficial use of solid waste is a sustainability practice that involves using a waste in a manufacturing process to make another product or using it as a substitute for construction materials.

    • Oregon DEQ has standing beneficial use determinations and makes other beneficial use decisions on a case-by-case basis.
    • Beneficial use is defined as “the productive use of solid waste in a manner that will not create an adverse impact to public health, safety, welfare, or the environment.”
Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT)

The treatment technology that best lessens or reduces the toxicity and/or mobility of the hazardous constituents for a particular waste.

Biennial Report (National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report)

A report submitted by Small (SQG) and Large Quantity Generators (LQG) who ship hazardous waste off-site to a treatment, storage, disposal (TSD) facility must prepare and submit a Biennial Report that summarizes their hazardous waste generation in terms of the nature, type, quantity, disposal method, and composition of their waste.

It provides the EPA and states the quantities of hazardous waste generated and the movements of those hazardous wastes.

The Biennial Report form (EPA form 8700-13A/B) must be submitted to the authorized state agency or EPA regional office by March 1 of every even-numbered year.

The report includes the following information:

  • The EPA identification number, name, and address of the generator.
  • The calendar year covered by the report
  • Your EPA identification number, name, and address for each off-site treatment, storage, or disposal facility to which waste was shipped
  • The name and EPA identification number of each transporter used
  • A description, EPA hazardous waste number (from 40 CFR part 261, subpart C or D), DOT hazard class, and quantity of each hazardous waste shipped off-site
  • A description of the efforts undertaken during the year to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated.
  • A description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually achieved during the year in comparison to previous years
  • The certification signed by the generator or authorized representative.

Also see Annual Report

Business Waste

Building Management Companies, Commercial Real-estate Companies, Retail and Big Box Stores, Hotels and Restaurants all generate and have waste to dispose of from time to time.

Knowing what wastes you have and whether or not they are hazardous is a responsibility of the business. Improper management of waste is an economic and environmental liability. Results can be fines, bad press, closures, harm to people and animals, and damage to the surrounding environment. The cost for proper disposal and management of waste far exceeds the cost and liability of a clean-up or injured worker.

Knowing how to store, track, label and dispose of your waste prevents misuse, spills and accidental exposures to harmful chemicals. Doing so can also prevent violations from state regulatory agencies, such as your states Safety Dept. Environmental Dept. or local Fire Marshal.

These wastes tend to be forgotten and/or stored out of the way. Unfortunately, they are usually seen by someone everyday right up until an inspector asks, “What’s all that?”

Many wastes have some sort of hazard associated to them, so they should not or cannot be thrown in the garbage, such as;

Fluorescent light tubes, batteries, e-waste, vehicle maintenance waste, aerosols, printing chemicals, pool cleaning chemicals, fertilizers, poisons, etc.

The good news is much of your waste can be recycled.

Types of waste these business may have can vary:

Building Management Companies, Commercial Real-estate Companies and Hotels generally have janitorial and maintenance waste or waste left by tenants, such as;

    • Fuel and oil from generators, paints, aerosols, cleaners, old smoke alarms, herbicides, pesticides, etc.

Retail and Big Box Stores can have janitorial and maintenance, but may also have off-specification, damaged or returned products, such as:

Drain cleaners, aerosols, paints, etc.

Depending on the volumes, these business are usually Exempt Generators.

Meaning you cannot store more than 1,000 kg (2,200 lbs.) of hazardous waste or 1 kg (2.2 lbs.) of acute hazardous waste on site at any time.

Your hazardous waste must be sent to an off-site treatment or disposal facility (TSD) which is:

    • A state or federally permitted hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility (TSDF).
    • A facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a state to manage municipal or industrial solid waste.
    • A facility that uses, reuses, or legitimately recycles the waste (or treats the waste prior to use, reuse, or recycling).
    • A universal waste handler or destination facility subject to the universal waste requirements of 40 CFR Part 273.
      • Universal wastes are hazardous wastes such as batteries, recalled and collected pesticides, mercury-containing thermostats and other equipment, mercury-containing lamps, or aerosol cans.

In Oregon you are a VSQG / Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator if in every calendar month, you:

  • Generate 2.2 pounds or less of acute hazardous wastes, or
  • Generate 220 pounds or less of hazardous wastes, or
  • Generate 220 pounds or less of spill cleanup debris containing hazardous wastes, or
  • Never had on-site more than 2,200 pounds of hazardous wastes.

In Washington you are a SQG / Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator if in every calendar month, you:

  • Generate 2.2 pounds or less of acute hazardous wastes, or
  • Generate 220 pounds or less of hazardous wastes, or
  • Generate 220 pounds or less of spill cleanup debris containing hazardous wastes, or
  • Never had on-site more than 2,200 pounds of hazardous wastes.

Being an Exempt Generator is the governments way of encouraging you to manage your hazardous waste correctly by making it easy for you to so and not overwhelming you with confusing regulations. However, the responsibility is yours, ignorance is not a valid excuse and will not stop a fine from a violation, especially if it has caused harm or a release.

C

Canabis Waste

In Idaho, all forms of cannabis/marijuana, including processed products made from cannabis/ marijuana are illegal to possess.

To dispose of it you can contact local law enforcement or a licensed hazardous waste disposal company.

In Oregon and Washington, you can possess certain amounts of medical and/or recreational cannabis/marijuana. Companies that typically generate marijuana/cannabis waste are:

Analytical labs, growers, distributors and stores that sell cannabinoid-based products containing THC.

Disposal in OR and WA is achieved by destroying the cannabis/marijuana at an offsite solid waste processing facility, such as a municipal or regional landfill, incinerator, waste to energy facility, or composting site.

Prior to disposal Generators of cannabis/marijuana waste must do a waste determination to see if the material is a hazardous or dangerous waste, or not. In particular, facilities that extract THC from cannabis/marijuana should do this determination.

If the waste is a RCRA hazardous or WA state dangerous waste, it must be sent to a permitted TSD facility.

Cannabis/Marijuana waste could be hazardous or dangerous wastes due to the addition of pesticides and/or solvents during analysis and in WA if the THC level is 10% or greater.

If the waste is not a hazardous or dangerous waste, it must be rendered unusable prior to it being send off-site for disposal.

Unusable renders the cannabis/marijuana undesirable, unrecognizable, incapable of growth or germination and “unusable” by humans or animals.

Unusable includes, but is not limited to, ingestion, inhalation, topical application, processing or remediation.

This can be achieved by grinding (for solids) or absorbing (for liquids) the cannabis waste together with other (compostable or noncompostable) waste materials, such that the resulting mixture is at least fifty percent (50%) non-marijuana waste.

Solid cannabis/marijuana waste it can destroyed by mixing it with dirt, bark/wood chips, food scraps, vegetable oils, potting soil and other inert/non-hazardous materials.

It should be at least a 50:50 blend

Liquids containing cannabis/marijuana can be destroyed by mixing with kitty litter, shredded paper, oil sorb, lime, vermiculite, or other similar materials.

It should be at least a 50:50 blend

Once the non-hazardous or non-dangerous cannabis/marijuana waste has been rendered unusable it can be placed in your municipal garbage container.

Your garbage container must be secured and locked such that it cannot be opened or moved (rolled away etc.).

You can also hold this waste inside of your building, so long as it is secure from theft until such time it can be placed in the garbage container for disposal (i.e., just prior to the garbage or compost trucks arrival).

CESQG (VSQG)

Conditionally exempt small quantity generator. As of 2017 a CESQG is now called a Very Small Quantity Generator (VSQG).

A facility or organization that generates no more than 100 kilograms of hazardous waste in a month. Must have less than 1,000 kilograms of hazardous waste on site at any time. CESQGs have minimal regulatory requirements. In particular, assuming they meet the quantity thresholds, there is no time limit for shipping the hazardous waste off-site.

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, 42 U.S. C Section 9601 et seq., referred to colloquially as “Superfund”, providing for cleanup and remediation of uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites and response to accidents, spills and other emergency releases of hazardous substances. CERCLA provides EPA with enforcement authority to ensure that responsible parties pay the cleanup costs. (“PRPs” are Potentially Responsible Parties.)

Chemical

Any substance, or mixture of substances.

Chemical Name

The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) rules of nomenclature, or a name that will clearly identify the chemical for the purpose of conducting a hazard classification.

Chemical Waste

Chemical wastes, as reported to EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), may or may not also be considered RCRA hazardous waste, but they are toxic chemicals. TRI reporting is based on how chemicals are used and not on the characteristics of the wastes generated. While the quantity of TRI chemicals released to the air, water, or land does not indicate their health risks, the information can be used as a starting point to evaluate the potential for human exposure to TRI chemicals and whether their releases may pose risks to human health and the environment.

TRI (Toxics Release Inventory) in a mandatory program that tracks the management of certain toxic chemicals that can pose a threat to human health and the environment. It is a resource for learning about toxic chemical releases and pollution prevention activities as reported by industrial and federal facilities. 

Facilities that have or use one or more of the approximately 775 TRI-listed chemicals or 33 chemical catergoried must report annually how much of each chemical is released to the environment and/or managed through recycling, energy recovery, treatment or disposal. 

A “release” of a chemical means that it is emitted to the air or water, or placed in some type of land disposal. 

The information submitted by these facilities is compiled into the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI).

This data is used by communities, government agencies, companies, and others to inform people of what chemicals are in their communities and their associated risks, such as causing cancer or other chronic human health effects. Significant adverse acute human health effects and/or significant adverse environmental effects. 

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) created TRI to promote emergency planning and to provide the public with information about releases of toxic chemicals in their communities. 

Characteristic Waste

A RCRA characteristic hazardous waste is a solid waste that meets the definition of one or more of the four waste characteristics: Ignitability (D001), Corrosivity (D002), Reactivity (D003), and Toxicity (D004 – D043).

Ignitable wastes include liquids with flash points below 60 °C, non-liquids that cause fire through specific conditions, such as spontaneous combustion, have a flash point less than 60 °C (140 °F), are ignitable compressed gases, are oxidizers.

Corrosive wastes are acids or bases (pH less than or equal to 2, or greater than or equal to 12.5) or are capable of corroding steel, such as storage tanks or drums.

Reactive wastes may be unstable under normal conditions, may react with water, may give off toxic gases and may be capable of detonation or explosion under normal conditions or when heated. They can cause explosions, toxic fumes, gases, or vapors when heated, compressed, or mixed with water.

Toxic wastes that are hazardous due to the toxicity characteristic and are harmful when ingested or absorbed into the body. Toxic wastes present a concern as they may be able to leach from the waste into the environment, such as groundwater.

Toxicity is defined through a laboratory procedure called the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). 

Closed Container

A container is closed when all openings or lids are properly and securely affixed to the container, except when wastes are actively being added to or removed from the container.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)

The codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States.

40 CFR: Protection of the Environment. EPA regulation to protect human health and the environment. Includes hazardous waste regulation.

49 CFR: Transportation. Department of Transportation regulations that include hazardous materials transportation (including hazardous waste) regulations and federal motor carrier regulations.

Conditionally Exempt Generator (CEG)

You are a conditionally exempt generator, if in every calendar month, you:

  • Generate 2.2 pounds or less of acute hazardous wastes, or
  • Generate 220 pounds or less of hazardous wastes, or
  • Generate 220 pounds or less of spill cleanup debris containing hazardous wastes, or
  • Never had on-site more than 2,200 pounds of hazardous wastes.
Confined Space Entry

A confined space has limited or restricted means of entry, is not designed for continuous human occupancy, and is large enough and configured so that a person can enter the space and maneuver well enough to perform tasks.

Examples; pits, tanks, vats, silos and vaults.

Hazards associated with confined spaces include oxygen deficiency, toxic vapor’s, explosive or combustible gases, solvents or dusts, temperature extremes, as well as, physical and mechanical hazards such as rotating machinery, electrical equipment or walls and materials that can engulf or trap an entrant.

There are three types of Confined Spaces:

Non-Permit

Is for a confined spaces that pose no risk or hazards to the entrants. Normal safety protocols and notifications should be observed.

Alternate-Permit

An alternate permit is required for a confined space that with proper ventilation it poses no other hazards to the entrant.

Permit-Required.

Permit-Required confined spaces are the most hazardous and require you or some qualified person to completed a safety checklist, simply called a “permit”, before you enter into the space.

If entry cannot be avoided and it is a Permit-Required space the entrants must follow a specific set of safety protocols. These may include:

  • Air monitoring
  • Lock out / Tag out
  • Respirator use
  • Specialized PPE
  • Rescue equipment
  • Specific training for supervisors, entrants and rescuers
  • Use of certain equipment, such as non-sparking tools
  • Having a rescue team on stand-by
Construction and Demolition Waste

C&D (construction and demolition) waste and debris, which typically consists of roadwork material, excavated material, demolition waste, construction/renovation waste, and site clearance waste.

Much of this debris is be sent to landfill or recycling.

Concrete and wood can be grinded for reuse.

Clean soil can be used as fill or ground cover.

Container

Repository used to accumulate waste from residential, commercial and industrial sites.

Containers can vary in size and type according to the needs of the business or restrictions of the community.

Something that holds waste. These vary widely in size and type, but the most common are 55-gallon drums, roll-off dumpsters and portable tote tanks.

Corrective Action Program

Requires facilities (past and present) that treat, store or dispose of hazardous wastes to investigate and clean up contaminated soil, groundwater, and surface water.

A RCRA program that oversees the investigation and cleanup of nearly 4,000 hazardous waste sites across the country.

It is run by the EPA and 43 authorized states and territories, alongside responsible facilities.

RCRA permits issued to TSDFs must include provisions for Corrective Action as well as financial assurance to cover the costs of implementing those cleanup measures.

Corrosivity

Having the quality of corroding or eating away; being erosive.

The characteristic which identifies hazardous wastes that are acidic or alkaline and can readily corrode or dissolve flesh, metal, or other materials.

EPA, under RCRA, a hazardous waste is corrosive if it is:

  • Aqueous and has a pH less than or equal to 2 or greater than or equal to 12.5; or
  • A liquid and corrodes steel at rate greater than 6.35 mm (approx. 1/4 inch) per year at a test temperature of 55 degrees Celsius (40 CFR 261.22).

DOT, under the HMR, a Class 8 (Corrosive) material is defined as a liquid or solid that:

  • Causes irreversible full thickness destruction of human skin at the site of contact within a specified period of time (4 hrs.).
  • Is a liquid, or a solid that may become a liquid during transportation, which has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum, at least 6.25 mm (0.25 in.) a year, at a test temperature of 55°C (130°F).

D

Dental Amalgam

Dental Amalgam contains mercury and possibly other metals such as silver, tin and copper. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 50 percent of mercury entering Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) comes from the amalgam used in dental offices.

The amount of Mercury can vary, but most amalgams exceed the regulatory limits for mercury and possible silver.

Depending on your Generator Status and the level of mercury (as well as other metals, such as copper, silver, tin, and zinc) present in your waste Dental Amalgam it could have RCRA waste codes applied (e.g., D009 for mercury and D011 for silver).

The vast majority of dental offices have an exempt Generator Status (VSQG in OR and ID, SQG in WA). If this is the case, the RCRA codes would not be applicable. However, it must still be managed compliantly as a waste. It is also the responsibility of each dental office to determine their Generator status.

Dental offices that use mercury containing Dental Amalgams are required to minimize the amount of mercury that reaches their sewer system. Most office do this by using Traps and Separators, which can remove up to 99% of the mercury.

Traps screen out larger particles of mercury amalgams.

Separators capture amalgam particles that are too small to be screened out by the traps.

Practices that help mitigate mercury from getting into sewers system and the environment include:

Not rinsing the Traps or other mercury contaminated items in sinks.

Properly cleaning and maintaining traps and separators.

Not putting any mercury containing items (amalgam, amalgam traps, teeth or capsules in with your red bag / biohazardous waste.

Send mercury containing liquid and solid waste to a permitted recycler or disposal facility.

Designated Facility

The hazardous waste treatment, storage, disposal (TSD) or recycling facility that has been designated on a manifest by the generator. The facility must meet one of the following:

  • Has received a permit or interim status in accordance with 40 CFR 270 & 124.
  • Has received a permit or interim status from an authorized state in accordance with 40 CFR 271.
  • Is regulated under 40 CFR 261.6(c)(2); or
  • Is regulated under Subpart F of 40 CFR 270.
Designated Recycling Facility

A facility designated on a manifest or any other shipping document by a hazardous waste generator that recycles hazardous waste received from off-site in units that are exempt from the requirements to obtain a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit for the management of hazardous waste.

Discarded Material

A Discarded Material is defined by regulation as any material which is:

  • Abandoned
  • Recycled
  • Inherently waste-like
  • A military munition
  • An unused Commercial Chemical Product (CCP) meets the definition of a solid waste when the generator makes the decision to discard it. Under RCRA, unused products do not become ‘waste’ until they become ‘discarded material.’

EPA believes that an unused product becomes ‘discarded’ when an intent to discard the material is demonstrated.

asphyxiant, combustible dust, pyrophoric gas, or hazard not otherwise classified.

Disposal

The discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking, or placing of any hazardous waste or hazardous substance into or on any land or water so that the hazardous waste, or hazardous substance or any constituent thereof, may enter the environment or be emitted into the air or discharged into any waters of the state as defined in ORS 468.700.

The discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking, or placing of a hazardous waste into or on land or water so that the waste or its constituents may enter the environment or be emitted into the air or discharged into any waters, including groundwater.

Disposal Facility

Is a permitted Treatment Storage and Disposal facility (TSD or TSDF) where hazardous waste is intentionally burned, treated prior to being placed into or on any land or discharged into any waters. (e.g., Part B permitted Incinerators and Subtitle C landfills)

A facility or part of a facility at which hazardous waste is intentionally placed into or on any land or water, and at which waste will remain after closure (i.e., an End Facility).

DOT

U.S. Department of Transportation requires and enforces stringent safety procedures for the transportation of hazardous materials, including Hazardous Waste in conjunction with the EPA.

DOT Empty Container

DOT empty containers are not defined by volume or weight. They are defined by the existing hazardous properties. If the hazard still exists, then it is regulated as a full package by DOT no matter how much material is still left in the package. For example, if your package has residual flammable liquid that is still creating a flammable atmosphere within the drum, then this empty drum, which contains only the residue of a DOT hazardous material shall be offered for transportation and transported in the same manner as when it was full.

DOT Hazardous Material

DOT has the authority to regulate the transportation of hazardous materials under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), which is overseen by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) division of DOT.

A DOT hazardous material is defined as “a substance (gas, liquid, or solid) capable of creating harm to people, environment, and property.”

By definition, hazardous materials are capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property in commerce. This includes substances, wastes, marine pollutants, elevated temperature materials, and items included in DOTs Hazardous Materials Table (HMT – 49 CFR 172.101) (e.g., laboratory chemicals, solvents, alcohol, acids, compressed gases, cleaners, pesticides, paints, infectious substances, radioactive materials).

Note that anything excluded from the EPA’s Hazardous Waste Manifest requirements is not considered a hazardous waste by DOT when shipped. However, it may still be considered a hazardous material.

Hazardous materials are legally defined by class, characteristic, and name:

  • Class 1: Explosives
  • Class 2: Gases
  • Class 3: Flammable Liquid
  • Class 4: Flammable Solids
  • Class 5: Oxidizing Substances, Organic Peroxides
  • Class 6: Poisonous (Toxic) and Infectious Substances
  • Class 7: Radioactive Materials
  • Class 8: Corrosives
  • Class 9: Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
  • DOT code requires that any employee involved in the transportation (shipping or receiving) of hazardous materials must be trained and tested in general awareness, site-specific job functions, and transportation security.

For the purpose of applying the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT) Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) and identifying hazardous materials, the DOT limits the meaning of hazardous waste to only those RCRA hazardous wastes that are required to be documented on a uniform hazardous waste manifest when transported. This definition excludes shipments of wastes that are not required to be documented on a manifest, such as government-transported shipments and those from Very Small Quantity Generators (VSQGs).

DOT Hazardous Material Diamond Labels

The DOT diamond hazard labels are based on the Hazard Class or Classes for the primary, and any subsidiary hazard classes of the hazardous material listed in the PSN.

The label must be printed on or affixed to a surface of the package or containment. The label must be located on the same surface of the package and near the shipping name marking. If primary and subsidiary hazard labels are required, they must be displayed with 6 inches of each other.

Hazard class labels must be durable and weather resistant. These labels must withstand without deterioration or change in color, a 30-day exposure to reasonable transport conditions.

The labels must not be obscured by markings or attachments.

The label colors must contrast the background they have been printed or affixed to.

DOT Placarding

Each person who offers or transports hazardous materials must comply with the placarding requirements. It is the responsibility of the shipper or the carrier to make sure the correct placards are offered or affixed.

Use the HMR and refer to both placarding Tables (1 and 2) and any exceptions.

All applicable placards must be placed on each side of the vehicle.

UN ID numbers must be used on:

Non-Bulk Packages: If 4,000 kg (8,882 Lbs.) of a Single Commodity is loaded at one facility and contains no other materials.

Except: o Class 1, 7, or any other material not requiring ID #s.

Small quantities, LTD QTY’s, Combustibles, etc.

All Bulk Packages: 4 Sides if > 1,000 Gallons; 2 Sides if < 1,000 Gallons.

Placarding Exception for less than 454 kg (1,001 pounds). Except for bulk packaging’s and hazardous materials subject to § 172.505, when hazardous materials covered by table 2 of this section are transported by highway or rail, placards are not required on:

This exception does not prohibit the display of placards in the manner described, if not otherwise prohibited (see § 172.502), on transport vehicles or freight containers which are not required to be placarded.

Placarding Requirements have two Tables (1 and 2). General requirement of which are:

Table 1 – Any bulk packaging, freight container, unit load device, transport vehicle or rail car containing any quantity of material listed in Table 1 must be placarded.

Table 2 – When the aggregate gross weight of all hazardous materials in non-bulk packages covered in Table 2 is greater than 454 kg (1,001 lbs.), placards are required on the transport vehicle or freight container when transported by highway or rail.

You may not over placard. Placards may not be displayed on a transport vehicle, portable tank, or freight container unless: Transported material is a hazardous material; Placarding represents a hazard of the material; Placarding conforms to the regulations.

Placarding requirements do not apply to: small quantities of certain hazard classes; Limited quantities; Infectious substances; Other regulated material (ORM-Ds); Combustible liquids in non-bulk packaging’s; Materials prepared in accordance with §173.13

E

E-Waste

E-Waste (computers, printers, monitors, laptops, cell phones, etc.) can come from businesses, government offices, schools and individuals. Much of it can be reused, refurbished, or recycled.

Many states, such as Oregon, prohibit the disposal of discarded electronic equipment including computers, monitors, printers, TVs, stereo systems, VCRs, phones and other personal electronic devices.

Other states, Washington and Idaho, require e-waste be recycled or reused. If it is not, a waste determination must be done and if the e-waste is determined to be a hazardous or dangerous waste it must then be disposed of at a permitted disposal facility.

E-waste contains toxic metals, some of which are hazardous (such as lead and cadmium) and must be managed correctly through a permitted disposal facility or recycler.

It is best to gather and send all your e-waste to a company who will have it recycled.

Modern e-waste recyclers are capable of separating out all the various types of plastics, metals and glass that come from discarded computers, monitors, keyboards, tablets, cell phones, televisions, DVD players, stereos, copiers, laptops, or any piece of equipment containing a circuit board.

Ecology

Washington State Department of Ecology’s (DOE)

Electronic manifest (or e-Manifest)

e-Manifest is an electronic version of the hazardous waste manifest that is obtained from the EPA‘s national e-Manifest system and transmitted electronically to the system. It is the legal equivalent of EPA Forms 8700-22 (Manifest) and 8700-22A (Continuation Sheet).

Electronic Manifest System (or e-Manifest System) is the EPA‘s national information technology system through which the electronic manifest may be obtained, completed, transmitted, and distributed to users of the electronic manifest and to regulatory agencies.

EPA Hazardous Waste

According to EPA, a hazardous waste is “a contaminated chemical or byproduct of a production process that no longer serves its purpose and needs to be disposed of in accordance with the EPA.”

Hazardous waste is generated from many sources, ranging from industrial manufacturing process wastes to batteries, and may come in many forms (e.g., liquids, solids, gases, and sludges). To determine whether a waste is considered “hazardous,” EPA has developed a flowchart identification process (pictured below).

EPA’s Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) establishes the regulatory framework for managing hazardous waste. The degree of regulation that applies to each hazardous waste generator depends on the amount of hazardous waste produced.

Unless it is managed at the facility, hazardous waste generated must eventually be transported off site for disposal, treatment, or recycling. At this point, DOT regulations kick in for the transportation of freight, including the transport of RCRA hazardous waste.

EPA code (40 CFR 266 and 273) requires that any employee taking part in chemical waste management (hazardous or universal) must be trained in proper waste disposal practices.

EPA Hazardous Waste Number

The number EPA assigns to each hazardous waste in 40 CFR 261, Subpart D, and to each characteristic waste in 40 CFR 261, Subpart C.

EPA Identification Number (EPA ID #)

A hazardous waste EPA ID number is issued by either the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (federal EPA ID numbers) or by the State (State EPA ID numbers).

The EPA ID number identifies each handler of hazardous waste on a hazardous waste manifest and other paperwork.

One is assigned to each generator, transporter, and TSDF that generates, transports and/or disposes of hazardous waste.

LQG’ and SQGs must obtain an EPA ID Number.

VSQGs do not need to obtain EPA ID numbers because they are exempt from the notification requirements in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

VSQGs should check if they need to obtain an EPA ID number under their state regulations, as some state have more stringent requirements.

Episodic Event

An activity (planned or unplanned) that does not normally occur during a generator’s operations and that causes that generator to exceed the threshold for its normal generator category for that month.

Very small quantity generators and small quantity generators can experience episodic events.

Generator has 60 days from the start of the event to complete it and ship all the hazardous waste off site to a RCRA-designated facility for treatment, storage, or disposal.

If the hazardous waste is not off site within 60 days, then it must be counted toward the generator’s monthly generation levels.

The generator may only use this provision once every calendar year unless there is a second event for which the generator receives approval from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to manage as an additional episodic event.

If the first event is planned, then any second event would have to be unplanned. If the first event is unplanned, any second event would have to be planned.

Planned episodic events include tank or lab cleanouts, short-term demolition projects, short term construction projects, short-term site remediation, equipment maintenance during plant shutdowns, and removal of excess chemical inventories.

Unplanned episodic events include production process upsets, product recalls, accidental spills, or “acts of nature,” such as a tornado, hurricane, or flood.

Excluded Waste

A category of waste that is excluded from certain hazardous waste requirements. One example is recycled scrap metals. Some scrap metals may have chromium (hazardous), but, with the excluded waste category, recycling is encouraged.

Extremely Hazardous Substances

Regulated nationally by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) regulations.

Could cause serious human health effects from short-term exposures such as accidental air releases. Extremely hazardous substances must be reported to state and local emergency planners.

F

Facility

All contiguous land and structures, other appurtenances, and improvements on the land, used for treating, storing, or disposing of hazardous waste. A facility may consist of several treatment, storage, or disposal operational units (e.g., one or more landfills, surface impoundments) or combinations of them.

For reporting purposes, facility refers to hazardous waste generators; RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; and designated recycling facilities

The term includes all contiguous land, structures, other appurtenances and improvements on the land, owned or operated by the same person or by any person who controls, is controlled by, or under common control of any person.

Federally Authorized State

A state that EPA has given primary responsibility for implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste program. Federally authorized states have adopted and apply RCRA hazardous waste rules that are at least as stringent as the EPA rules.

Flash Point

The lowest temperature at which vapors of a material will ignite, when given an ignition source.

For example, an open-top container of gasoline on a cold day would still produce ignitable vapors because it has a very low flash point.

Form Code

WXXX (W followed by three numbers) Code describes the general physical and chemical characteristics of a hazardous waste.

Link.

G

Generator

A person who, by virtue of ownership, management, or control, is responsible for causing or allowing to be caused the creation of hazardous waste.

Any person or site whose processes and actions create hazardous waste listed in 40 CFR 261. Generators are divided into three categories based on the quantity of waste they produce in a month, and each category must comply with the applicable set of requirements. The three categories are:

  • Large Quantity Generators (LQGs)
  • Small Quantity Generators (SQGs)
  • Very Small Quantity Generators (VSQGs).

Any business or individual whose act or practice creates or produces hazardous waste. Typically listed as either a Large Quantity Generator (LQG), or Small Quantity Generator (SQG).

Generator Knowledge

Is a term used when a Generator is making a waste determination based on what they know about a particular waste stream.

Acceptable knowledge includes knowing what goes into the waste: chemical compositions and concentrations. The process that generates the waste, what chemicals go in, what gets used in or during manufacturing, what gets lost during any reactions, treatments, rinses and/or emissions and finally what comes out as waste once the process is completed.

The generators can use their experience of the process and other reliable and relevant information, such as SDSs, product specification sheets, tests other than those methods set forth in subpart C of 40 CFR part 261 and so forth.

When available knowledge is inadequate to make an accurate determination, the generator must test the waste according to the applicable methods set forth in subpart C of 40 CFR part 261.

H

Hazard Class

Means the nature of the physical or health hazards, e.g., flammable solid, carcinogen, oral acute toxicity.

Hazard Class / DOT Hazard Class

The DOT divides hazardous materials into nine Hazard Classes, based on the physical properties and/or health hazards of the material, e.g., flammable solid, carcinogen, oral acute toxicity.

CLASS 1 EXPLOSIVES

DIVISION 1.1 MASS EXPLOSIVE HAZARD

DIVISION 1.2 PROJECTION HAZARD

DIVISION 1.3 MASS FIRE HAZARD

DIVISION 1.4 MINOR EXPLOSION HAZARD

DIVISION 1.5 VERY INSENSITIVE EXPLOSIVES

DIVISION 1.6 EXTREMELY INSENSITIVE EXPLOSIVES

CLASS 2 GASES

DIVISION 2.1 FLAMMABLE GASES

DIVISION 2.2 NON-FLAMMABLE GASES

DIVISION 2.3 POISONOUS OR TOXIC

CLASS 3 FLAMMABLE LIQUID

Includes materials whose Flash Point (FP) is < 141F

Hazardous Waste with a FP of < 140 F

Combustible Liquids are materials whose FP is > 141 F, but < 200 F. Materials transported domestically only, whose FPs are 100 F up to 141 F may be reclassified as combustible in accordance with 173.120(b).

CLASS 4 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS

DIVISION 4.1 FLAMMABLE SOLID

DIVISION 4.2 SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL

DIVISION 4.3 DANGEROUS WHEN WET

CLASS 5 OXIDIZING SUBSTANCES; ORGANIC PEROXIDES

DIVISION 5.1 OXIDIZER

DIVISION 5.2 ORGANIC PEROXIDE

CLASS 6 POISONOUS (TOXIC) AND INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

DIVISION 6.1 POISONOUS (TOXIC) MATERIAL

DIVISION 6.2 INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE

CLASS 7 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

CLASS 8 CORROSIVES

Hazardous Waste Acids – pH < 2

Hazardous Waste Bases – pH > 12.5

Dermal – A liquid or solid that causes full thickness destruction of human skin at the site of contact within a specified period of time (four hours).

Metal – Materials that corrode through steel or aluminum at least 6.25 mm (0.25 in.) a year.

CLASS 9 MISCELLANEOUS DANGEROUS GOODS

Can include Environmentally Hazardous Substances, Hazardous Wastes, and Marine Pollutants.

Hazard Communication Standard

The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is an OSHA requirement that’s purpose is to ensure chemical safety to employees who may come into contact with hazardous chemicals at their workplace by providing them with information and training on the potential hazards.

The purpose of this section is to ensure that the hazards of all chemicals produced or imported are classified, and that information concerning the classified hazards is transmitted to employers and employees.

requires chemical manufacturers or importers to classify the hazards of chemicals which they produce or import, and all employers to provide information to their employees about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels and other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and information and training.

Those who manufacture and/or import chemicals must assess their hazards, as well as create labels and safety data sheets (SDS) that inform their customers of the potential dangers.

Classifying the potential hazards of chemicals and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective measures to employees, may include, for example, but is not limited to, provisions for: developing and maintaining a written hazard communication program for the workplace, including lists of hazardous chemicals present; labeling of containers of chemicals in the workplace, as well as of containers of chemicals being shipped to other workplaces; preparation and distribution of safety data sheets to employees and downstream employers; and development and implementation of employee training programs regarding hazards of chemicals and protective measures.

Workplaces that have or use hazardous chemicals must have clearly displayed labels and supply SDSs to employees who may come in contact with them.

Employees must also be trained on the proper handling of hazardous chemicals as well as on how to read their related labels and SDSs.

Hazard Evaluation or Health Hazard Evaluation

Is done to learn whether workers are exposed to hazardous materials or harmful conditions.

The hazard evaluation process will recognize and evaluate chemical, physical and biological hazards within the workplace to determine if proper controls are present and control unacceptable exposures.

Hazard Identification

Is the primary component of a Health Hazard Evaluation done to identify and assess hazards that can effect employers and their workers:

  • Collect and review information about the hazards present or likely to be present in the workplace.
  • Conduct initial and periodic workplace inspections of the workplace to identify new or recurring hazards.
  • Investigate injuries, illnesses, incidents, and close calls/near misses to determine the underlying hazards, their causes, and safety and health program shortcomings.
  • Group similar incidents and identify trends in injuries, illnesses, and hazards reported.
  • Consider hazards associated with emergency or nonroutine situations.
  • Determine the severity and likelihood of incidents that could result for each hazard identified and use this information to prioritize corrective actions.
  • Some hazards, such as housekeeping and tripping hazards, can and should be fixed as they are found.
Hazard Ranking System

Is the principal mechanism that the EPA uses to place uncontrolled waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL).

It is a numerically based scoring system that uses information from initial, limited investigations,  the preliminary assessment (PA), the site inspection (SI), and the expanded site inspection (ESI) if necessary, to assess the relative potential of sites to pose a threat to human health or the environment.

Hazardous Chemical

Means any chemical which is classified as a physical hazard or a health hazard, a simple asphyxiant, combustible dust, pyrophoric gas, or hazard not otherwise classified.

Hazardous Chemicals

Regulated nationally by the U.S. Occupational Health & Safety Administration (OSHA)under the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) regulations, pose a physical or health hazard to workers.

Regulated nationally by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), must be reported to state and local emergency planners under the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) regulations. These hazardous chemicals include both Superfund hazardous substances and extremely hazardous substances.

Hazardous chemicals, as defined nationally by the International Code Council in the International Fire Code (IFC), pose an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of operating personnel, emergency personnel, the public, and the environment if not properly controlled during handling, storage, manufacture, processing, packaging, use, disposal or transportation.

Hazardous Constituent

Hazardous constituents carry the chemical or physical risk that caused a waste they are contained in to be considered a hazardous waste by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or MPCA. They are different than groundwater protection hazardous constituents or underlying hazardous constituents.

Hazardous constituents are identified nationally by the EPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, which have been adopted in Minnesota by the MPCA.

Hazardous Drug

Hazardous drugs are defined differently by two federal agencies: however, both address health care employee safety. Both definitions are advisory on the federal level, not regulatory.

As defined by the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists (ASHP), adopted by U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), hazardous drugs cause cancer, damage genes, increase risk of birth defects, or damage organs.

As defined by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), an agency of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, hazardous drugs are those used for cancer chemotherapy, antiviral therapy, hormones, bioengineered drugs, and drugs harmful for pregnant or nursing mothers.

Hazardous Material

DOT – Any chemical or item that is a risk to public safety or the environment when being transported or moved in commerce by air, rail, ground, or sea.

OHSA – Any substance or chemical which is hazardous to people’s health or is physically hazardous.

EPA – Any item or chemical which can cause harm to people, plants, or animals when exposed by spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping or disposing into the environment.

NRC – Is any material considered hazardous by its production of ionizing radiation. This includes special nuclear material, by-product material, and radioactive substances.

Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT)

Hazardous materials, regulated nationally under the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), pose an unreasonable risk to public health and safety or property when transported in commerce.

Hazardous materials include most hazardous wastes, some hazardous substances, and environmentally hazardous substances in addition to other PHMSA-designated materials.

A substance or product that is dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Hazardous materials are regulated by DOT while in transportation.

Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA)

An agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), under the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR). Extremely hazardous substance See citations in Table 1 on page 8.

Hazardous Substance

The term “hazardous substance” means:

  • Any substance designated pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA) section 311 (“CWA Hazardous Substances”),
  • Any toxic pollutant listed under section 307(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act [ 33 U.S.C. 1317(a)]. (“CWA Toxic Pollutants”),
  • Any hazardous air pollutant listed under section 112 of the Clean Air Act (“CAA Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)”),
  • Any hazardous waste having the characteristics identified under or listed pursuant to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) section 3001 (“RCRA Hazardous Wastes”).
  • Any imminently hazardous chemical substance or mixture with respect to which the Administrator has acted pursuant to section 7 of the Toxic Substances Control Act.
    • There are currently no substances are designated under this authority).

Gets an RQ (Reportable Quantity) value.

There are currently about 800 CERCLA hazardous substances. In addition, there are approximately 1,500 known radionuclides, approximately 760 of which are listed individually.

The CERCLA list of hazardous substances can be found at 40 CFR part 302.4EXITEXIT EPA WEBSITE in Table 302.4 “List of Hazardous Substances and Reportable Quantities”.

Hazardous Substances

Regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Water Act (CWA), present an imminent and substantial danger to the public health or welfare, including fish, shellfish, wildlife, shorelines, and beaches, when discharged into navigable waters of the United States. These hazardous substances are also known as Clean Water Act hazardous substances or CWA hazardous substances.

Hazardous substances, regulated by the EPA under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, often referred to as Superfund) may present substantial danger to the public health or welfare or the environment when released into the environment. This definition establishes liability on the federal level for environmental damages caused by hazardous substances under Superfund. These hazardous substances are also known as Superfund hazardous substances or CERCLA hazardous substances. Superfund hazardous substances do not include petroleum or natural gas liquids.

All Clean Water Act hazardous substances (discussed in the previous paragraph) are Superfund hazardous substances, but not the reverse; the Superfund hazardous substances umbrella is larger and includes more hazardous substances.

Have a Reportable Quantity (RQ) value if spilled.

Hazardous Waste

A regulated subset of waste that can pose a substantial or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly managed. Possesses at least one of four characteristics (ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity), or appears on special EPA lists.

According to the EPA, hazardous waste is defined as waste with properties that make it dangerous and potentially harmful to human health and environment. The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) has a more precise definition which requires hazardous waste to exhibit particular characteristics and fall into a particular description. For more specifics on hazardous waste click here for the definition of hazardous waste in the Federal Code of Regulations

Describes a solid waste that exhibits a distinct hazardous characteristic or is otherwise listed as a hazardous waste in federal or state regulations.

Solid wastes with properties that make them dangerous or capable of having a harmful effect on human health and the environment. Under RCRA, Hazardous Wastes are specifically defined as wastes that exhibit a specific characteristic (toxicity, flammability, ignitability or infectious) or are specifically listed as a hazardous waste in the Subtitle C. States and provinces may promulgate their own definitions.

Hazardous wastes are determined by being on one of EPA’s four lists (F, K, P, or U) or meeting one of four characteristics (ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity).

Hazardous wastes are regulated nationally by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA).

Wastes must be assumed to be hazardous unless they are exempt from the RCRA regulations or are evaluated as not being included on any of four EPA lists and not meeting any of four physical and chemical characteristics.

Federally regulated hazardous wastes are also known as RCRA hazardous wastes or EPA wastes.

Hazardous waste is a solid waste (solid waste includes solids, liquids and compressed gases) that possesses at least one of four characteristics (ignitibility, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity), or that appears on federal or state official lists of hazardous wastes.

A solid waste is a hazardous waste if it is:

  • Defined by Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 261 as a hazardous waste; or
Hazardous Waste Contingency Plan

A document required for LQGs and SQGs that establishes an organized, planned, and coordinated course of action to follow in case of a fire, explosion, or release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents that could threaten human health or the environment.

Hazardous Waste Determination / Waste Characterization

Waste Characterization testing on solid and liquid samples to determine if material is considered hazardous based on the RCRA definition in 40 CFR Subpart 261.

Hazardous Waste Discharge

The accidental or intentional spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, or dumping of hazardous waste into or on any land or water.

Discharges can occur during the transportation, storage or management of hazardous waste.

Hazardous Waste Landfill

Also known as Subtitle C Landfills. Hazardous waste landfills are dedicated to the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes. When hazardous waste is removed from a contaminated site, those sites become safe places for plants, animals and human health. The materials contaminated with hazardous waste are treated and contained in the landfill, so it is no longer a threat to human health and the environment. To learn more about Subtitle C Landfills

Hazardous Waste Manifest

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest (EPA Forms 8700-22 and 8700-22A) is used by hazardous waste generators, hazardous waste transporters and hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities.

EPA launched the hazardous waste e-Manifest system nationwide on June 30, 2018. Generators, transporters, and receiving facilities have the option to create and submit manifests electronically. These manifest users may continue to use paper manifests after June 30, 2018; however, use of e-Manifest is highly encouraged by EPA.

Is meant to track hazardous waste from the generator/generation (through any transporters and on) to final disposal at a TSD facility.

When completed, the form contains information on the type and quantity of the waste being transported, instructions for handling the waste, and signature lines for all parties involved in the disposal process.

Each party that handles the waste signs the manifest and retains a copy for themselves

The receiving TSD facility returns a signed copy of the manifest to the generator within 35 days.

Hazardous waste manifests must accompany all hazardous waste that is shipped off site.

Each transporter signs the completed manifest when the shipment is accepted for transport.

The facility operator at the designated/final TSD also signs the form when the shipment is received and sends a copy of it back to you:

SQGs and LQGs must keep copies of the manifests that are signed by the TSDF for 3 years from the date the waste was accepted by the initial transporter.

If they do not receive a copy back from the TSDF in 35 days, they must investigate why and if they do not receive the copy back in 45 days, they must notify EPA.

Generators are not required to keep copies of manifests on site; however, they must be made available upon request.

For example, they may keep copies at a corporate headquarters.

Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER)

(HAZWOPER) requires any employees who are in positions that may respond to chemical spills or emergencies onsite to be trained in chemical risk recognition, spill control basics, emergency response, and additional requirements depending on the level of response expected.

The HAZWOPER training requirements are often confused with hazardous waste generator employee training required by the EPA under the RCRA regulations

This OSHA program requires that all employees must be trained on emergency response, spill management, and risk minimization. This training covers:

Code requirements​

  • Hazard classes, risk identification, hazardous communication
  • Site safety programs​
  • Proper selection use of appropriate PPE and respiratory protection​
  • Advanced spill management and emergency response procedures​
  • Risk minimization, emergency management, and engineering controls​

Refers to many types of hazardous waste operations and emergency services conducted around the world, especially those conducted under the auspices of the federal government of the United States. HAZWOPER training is covered under OSHA.

Is meant to protect employees who may be exposed to hazardous substances at hazardous waste facilities or when they respond to emergencies (such as spill cleanups).

Requires employers to follow specific work policies, practices, and procedures to protect their employees while conducting hazardous waste operations to include; handling, cleanup, disposal, and/or emergency response.

HAZWOPER applies to employers:

Cleanup operations.

Involve employees who remove, contain, incinerate, neutralize, stabilize, process, or handle hazardous substances at a hazardous waste site to make it safe for people or the environment.

There are three kinds of cleanup operations: cleanup operations required by a government agency at an uncontrolled hazardous waste site, corrective actions that involve cleanup at sites covered by RCRA, and voluntary clean-up operations.

Operations involving hazardous wastes at treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities.

Treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste and are required to have an RCRA permit or interim status from EPA, must comply with HAZWOPER.

Operations that generate hazardous waste but are not TSD facilities.

Businesses that generate hazardous waste as a byproduct of their production operations, store it for a short time, and then send it to a TSD facility, must comply with HAZWOPER.

VSQGs (Conditionally exempt small quantity generators) are exempt from HAZWOPER. However, they must comply with the emergency response requirements in HAZWOPER:

If you require your employees to respond to emergencies in areas that store hazardous waste and/or substances, you must comply with the applicable ER requirements in HAZWOPER.

You do not have to comply with the applicable ER requirements in HAZWOPER if you require your employees to evacuate the facility during an emergency and they do not assist in the response. You still need a compliant emergency action plan.

Operations that respond to emergencies involving releases of hazardous substances.

Emergency response operations caused by uncontrolled releases of hazardous substances where your employees respond, no matter where they occur, you must comply with HAZWOPER.

Hazardous Waste Storage Area / Accumulation Storage Area

There are two types of storage areas: the satellite accumulation area and the main hazardous waste storage area.

Satellite Accumulation Areas

The satellite accumulation area is an area at or near the point of hazardous waste generation and under the control of the operator of the process generating the waste.

At or near the point of generation and under the control of the process operator means the satellite accumulation area cannot be in the next room, through a doorway or too far away from the process. The main hazardous waste storage area can be anywhere at the facility and is where the facility stores their waste before being sent off-site for treatment, disposal, or recycling. There can also be more than one main storage area. The requirements for each storage area are listed below.

Can accumulate up to 55 gallons of non-acute hazardous waste or one quart of acute hazardous waste.

Required to date the containers when the above quantity limits are reached so that the generator can remove the hazardous waste to the main hazardous waste storage area or ship the wastes off-site within 3 days of reaching the above limits

Need to keep the containers closed except when adding or removing wastes; and

Must mark the containers with either the words “Hazardous Waste” or with other words that identify the contents of the container.

Central or Main Hazardous Waste Storage Area

The main hazardous waste storage area can be anywhere at the facility and is where the facility stores their waste before being sent off-site for treatment, disposal, or recycling. There can also be more than one main storage area. The requirements for each storage area are listed below.

Required to comply with the hazardous waste time and quantity limits appropriate to your generator status.

Must keep the containers sealed except when adding or removing wastes, in good condition, and secured from failure (i.e., the container’s material needs to be compatible with the waste)

Must conduct weekly inspections with logbook entries; and

Need to label each container with the words “Hazardous Waste”, a specific description of its contents, and the date on which the container first entered the main storage area.

If you have multiple main hazardous waste storage areas at your facility, you cannot start the clock over again by moving your wastes from one area to another.

Must be identified with signage and other markings to designate the area.

Must maintain aisle space to allow the unobstructed movement of personnel, fire protection equipment, spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment to any area of facility operation in an emergency, unless aisle space is not needed for any of these purposes.

Inspectors should be able to walk and squat down between rows of containers and be able to inspect and read each containers label without obstruction.

Containers holding ignitable or reactive waste must be located at least 15 meters (50 feet) from the facility’s property line.

The large quantity generator must take precautions to prevent accidental ignition or reaction of ignitable or reactive waste. This waste must be separated and protected from sources of ignition or reaction including but not limited to the following: Open flames, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat, sparks (static, electrical, or mechanical), spontaneous ignition (e.g., from heat-producing chemical reactions), and radiant heat.

Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, must not be placed in the same container.

A generator must use a container made of or lined with materials that will not react with, and are otherwise compatible with, the hazardous waste to be stored, so that the ability of the container to contain the waste is not impaired.

A container holding hazardous waste must always be closed during accumulation, except when it is necessary to add or remove waste.

A container holding hazardous waste must not be opened, handled, or stored in a manner that may rupture the container or cause it to leak.

Required labels must be visible.

Hazardous Waste Transporter

A person engaged in the off-site transportation of hazardous waste by air, rail, highway, or water.

Because hazardous waste transporters move regulated wastes on public roads, highways, rails, and waterways, they are subject to EPA (RCRA) and DOT regulation.

A transporter of hazardous waste must obtain/have an EPA ID number.

Must transport hazardous waste using an EPA Hazardous Waste Manifest.

Must obey all DOT Hazardous Materials regulations.

Drivers and Transporters must be licensed, permitted and insured to haul Hazmat.

Hazards Analysis

Hazard Analysis is the first step in risk management. A Hazard is a condition, event, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesirable event. During an Analysis you look for potential hazards and what the chances are of an incident occurring that could cause damage or injury. They typically consist of the following elements:

Process: A series of actions that are performed by multiple pieces of equipment or locations in a single system.

Risk: An event that might occur that threatens safety, either human or environmental.

Scenario: The risk assessment and the negative outcome associated with an event (e.g., human injury). A single process can have many scenarios.

What Happened: What changed the expected behavior of the process and lead to a risk.

What If: A condition that could potentially change the expected outcome of the process and lead to a risk.

Cause: The event that results from a change and leads to an undesirable safety or environmental outcome.

Consequence: The undesirable safety or environmental outcome that results from the cause. Together, the cause and the consequence define the risk.

Risk Assessment: Identifies the probability that the risk will have a negative safety or environmental impact and the severity of that negative safety or environmental impact.

Safeguard: A system or device that prevents the risk from occurring or lowers the probability or severity identified by the risk assessment.

Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) systematically identifies all of the ways in which operating conditions can deviate from the intended design, with the result being a safety hazard or an operating problem.

Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) systematically identifies all the risk hazards associated to a particular job or project.

HAZOPs and JHAs identify items such as:

  • Conditions/hazards in work area.
  • Appropriate tools provided and used.
  • Correct PPE provided and used.
  • All major components, pipes, and valves clearly labeled.
  • Are operators trained and able to diagnose alarms
  • Safety Data Sheets made available.
  • Are work permits in place (hot work, confined space entry, etc.).
  • Are hazardous materials (e.g., flammable materials) properly stored.
  • Equipment and control system design understood.
  • Description of the process technology understood.
  • Identification of known hazards associated with the materials and processes being used.
  • Past accident and incident experience.
  • Overall industry experience with the process.
  • Results of previous hazard reviews.
Hazards Identification

EPA has established a system of labeling hazardous materials to help identify the type of material and threat posed.

Hazard identification is part of the process used to evaluate if any particular situation, item, thing, etc. may have the potential to cause harm. To find and record possible hazards that may be present in your workplace The complete process is a Risk Assessment:

  1. Identify hazards and risk factors that have the potential to cause harm (hazard identification).
  2. Analyze and evaluate the risk associated with that hazard (risk analysis, and risk evaluation).
  3. Determine appropriate ways to eliminate the hazard or control the risk when the hazard cannot be eliminated (risk control).

Hazard identification can be done; during design or a new process beginning, before or during certain tasks, during inspections or after incidents and near misses.

Hazmat
Household Hazardous Waste

Household hazardous waste (HHW) is exempt from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations.

I

Ignitability

The quality of being burnable, or capable of burning.

The characteristic which identifies hazardous wastes that can readily catch fire and sustain combustion.

Ignitable wastes can create fires under certain conditions, are spontaneously combustible, or have a flash point less than 60 °C (140 °F).

Incinerator

Hazardous Waste: A device using controlled flame combustion to burn hazardous waste for treatment or disposal.

Incinerators are regulated as treatment, storage and disposal facilities, and are subject to RCRA permit requirements.

Incinerators do not include boilers or industrial furnaces.

Industrial Waste

Industrial waste can be hazardous or non-hazardous. It the result of a manufacturing process and once it is generated it is unwanted or has no other use, so it must be properly treated and disposed of.  

Examples of Industrial Wastes are:

Waters pretreated or directly discharged to a POTW from an industrial/manufacturing process, wood, cardboard/paper, ash, slag, foundry sand, scrap metal, plastic, and construction debris.

In Oregon an “Industrial Waste” means any liquid, gaseous, radioactive, or solid waste substance, or a combination of them, resulting from any process of industry, manufacturing, trade, or business or from developing or recovering any natural resources.

Federally, “Non-hazardous Industrial Waste” is subject to Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

40 CFR Part 257, Subparts A and B, provide the federal requirements for non-hazardous industrial waste facilities or practices.

Under RCRA, a waste is defined as nonhazardous if it does not meet the definition of a hazardous waste and is not subject to RCRA Subtitle C regulations.

Industrial wastes are typically produced in large volumes and so they must be managed in a manner that prevents damage to human health and the environment.

Industrial Waste Landfill

An industrial waste landfill is any landfill other than a municipal solid waste landfill or a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C hazardous waste landfill, or a Toxic Substances Control Act hazardous waste landfill.

It is used to dispose of industrial solid waste, such as RCRA Subtitle D wastes (e.g., non-hazardous industrial solid waste defined in 40 CFR, commercial solid wastes, or conditionally exempt small-quantity generator wastes.

They may also take C&D waste, construction and demolition debris, which typically consists of roadwork material, excavated material, demolition waste, construction/renovation waste, and site clearance waste.

Investigation Derived Waste (IDW)

A subset of remediation wastes that are generated from field investigation activities, which are approved and overseen by the State or the federal EPA and are specifically designed to determine the nature and extent of contamination.

IDW will normally be generated during the remedial investigation and feasibility study stage of a cleanup project.

L

Lab Pack

Lab Packing is a packing method used to compliantly transport small containers (bottles, jugs, jars, vials, etc.) containing various hazardous chemicals.

These small containers of hazardous materials and/or wastes are segregated into hazard classes and subsequently by their compatibility and treatment method before being placed into the appropriate outer containers for transport.

Generators that typically require lab packing are R&D, School, College, University, Hospital and pharmaceutical laboratories.

Labeling Containers 

Labeling is applying the required regulatory information to the outside of a container or packaging in order for it to be properly stored or transported.

Storage and/or Transport Labels:

Hazardous Waste

    • The words “Hazardous Waste” or in WA, “Dangerous Waste” when applicable.
    • Contents, such as the wastes name or the chemical
    • Accumulation Start Date
    • Hazardous Waste Label
    • The words “Hazardous Waste” or in WA, “Dangerous Waste” when applicable.
    • Phrase “Federal Law Prohibits Improper Disposal. If found, contact the nearest police or public safety authority or the US Environmental Protection Agency”
    • Generator’s name and address
    • Generators EPA ID#, if applicable
      • When shipping Haz Waste:
        • Add the manifest number and Propper Shipping Name (PSN)
        • The accumulation start date, the date the first drop when into the container
        • The composition and physical state of the waste
        • A statement which calls to attention the particular or primary hazardous properties of the waste (flammable, corrosive, toxic or reactive).

Universal Waste

    • Company (Generator, Shipper’s) Name
    • Company Address
    • Contents (e.g., NiCad Batteries, Mercury Vapor Lamps…)
    • Accumulation Start Date

Used Oil Label

    • “Used Oil”
    • If the oil is a hazardous waste “Waste Oil”, ref. Hazardous Waste Label

Non-Regulated Material / Non-Hazardous Waste Label

    • “Non-Regulated Material”, “Non-Hazardous Waste”
    • Company (Generator, Shipper’s) Name
    • Company Address
    • Contents (e.g., propylene glycol filters)
Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR)

A specific set of regulations designed to reduce the amount and/or toxicity of hazardous substances being placed in or on the land.

The regulations identify certain wastes that are restricted, and the standards to which they must be treated before being placed in a landfill.

LDR regulations also require analysis and recordkeeping (See 40 CFR 268).

Concentration levels or methods of treatment for hazardous constituents that must be met before land disposal.

LDRs ensure wastes are properly treated prior to disposal. Release. Any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment.

Large Quantity Generators

May accumulate their waste for up to 90 days before shipping it off-site.

You are a large quantity generator, if in any one calendar month, you:

  • Generate 2, 200 or more pounds of hazardous waste, or
  • Generate 2, 200 or more pounds of spill cleanup debris containing hazardous waste, or
  • Generate more than 2.2 pounds of acute hazardous waste, or
  • Generate more than 220 pounds of spill cleanup debris containing an acute hazardous waste, or
  • Have on-site more than 2.2 pounds of acute hazardous waste.
Large Quantity Handler of Universal Waste

A universal waste handler who accumulates a total of 5,000 kilograms (11,000 pounds) or more of all universal wastes (batteries, pesticides, hazardous waste lamps, or thermostats, calculated collectively) at any time.

This designation as a large quantity handler of universal waste is retained through the end of the calendar year in which 5,000 kilograms or more of universal wastes are accumulated.

LDR

The US EPA Land Disposal Restrictions Program has created treatment standards to for hazardous waste which ensure that is properly treated before the hazardous waste is disposed

LDR Certification

Paperwork required to accompany some shipments of hazardous waste subject to Land Disposal Restrictions (see above).

The certification informs the receiving facility that the waste is subject to LDR standards and explains what the appropriate treatment standards are.

Leachate

Describes liquids that have come into contact with waste.

Lead Paint

Lead-based paints were banned for residential use in 1978, so homes built before 1978 could have lead based paint. It can be exposed or underneath other layers of paints. When paint with lead peels and cracks, it creates lead paint chips and dust.

The chips and dust that collect due to wear, especially around windows, doors, and cabinets create a hazard for lead inhalation and ingestion.

Children are especially susceptible lead and its toxic long-term effects.

If you suspect lead paint, you should have it tested prior to disturbing it (such as during a renovation or demolition) and if lead is present, depending on the levels, you may need to dispose of it as a hazardous or dangerous waste.

Very small amounts of lead are toxic, so any sanding, scraping, , stripping or power washing of lead paint can create a significant hazard.

Disposal regulations can vary between states, but generally household do-it-yourselfers can dispose of lead paint debris as a household hazardous waste, which is exempt from RCRA/EPA regulation. However, commercial and government buildings and entities that generate lead paint debris must follow RCRA guidelines and determine if the lead debris is a hazardous waste and manage it appropriately based on the outcome of that determination.

In Oregon, the homeowner and/or their contractor who have generated lead paint waste from activities such as renovation or lead paint removal in their home can manage this as household waste so long as it is disposed of at a DEQ permitted solid waste landfill authorized to receive this type of waste.

In Washington, lead paint waste and debris from renovation and abatement at residences is considered household waste and can be disposed of as regular trash.

Per the EPA, residential lead-based paint waste may be disposed of in a C&D landfill or a municipal solid waste landfill.

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Refers to the technique used to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product’s life from-cradle-to-grave.

Liquid vs Solid Materials (physical liquids and solids)

Liquid wastes or materials have free liquids within the container,

Liquids that readily separate out from a solid at ambient temperature and pressure.

The paint filter test determines the presence of free liquids.

Solid wastes or materials have no free liquids within the container

Entrained liquids such as damp rags, wet soils, etc. are solids (they pass the paint filter test)

Listed Waste

Wastes that are considered hazardous under RCRA because they meet specific listing descriptions.

A hazardous waste considered hazardous because it meets specific listing descriptions and the danger it presents is considered self-evident.

LQG

Large quantity generator. A facility or organization that generates more than 1,000 kilograms of hazardous waste or 1 kilogram of acutely hazardous waste in any month. LQGs are typically considered to be heavily regulated. Among other things, they can typically accumulate hazardous waste on site for no more than 90 days.

M

Management

The treatment, storage, disposal, or recycling of hazardous waste.

For the purpose of annual reporting, management refers only to the final disposition of the waste, i.e., whether it is recycled, landfilled, etc.

Management Facility

A facility that treats, stores, disposes of, or recycles hazardous waste.

Management Method Code

HXXX Code describes the type of hazardous waste management system used to treat, recover or dispose of a hazardous waste.

For reporting purposes, it should be the final disposal method used.

Link

Manifest

The shipping document, EPA Form 8700-22 and, if necessary, EPA Form 8700-22A, originated and signed by the generator in accordance with the instructions included in the Appendix to CFR Part 262

See Hazardous Waste Manifest

Manifest Document Number

A unique five-digit document number assigned to the manifest by the generator for recording and reporting purposes.

Medical Waste

Waste generated at health care facilities. Some states are trying to expand their definitions to include over the counter and prescription products as well.

Mercury

Mercury is both a characteristic and a listed waste under RCRA. RCRA regulations describe specific disposal requirements for individual waste codes.

Mixed Waste

Waste that contains both hazardous waste (as defined by RCRA) and radioactive waste, source, special nuclear, or by-product material subject to the Atomic Energy Act (as defined by AEA and its amendments).

The hazardous component of the mixed waste is regulated by EPA under RCRA.

The radiological component of the mixed waste is regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

The NRC typically regulates waste from commercial and non-DOE facilities.

The DOE regulates waste from DOE facilities.

Mixture

Means a combination or a solution composed of two or more substances in which they do not react.

Per OSHA Chemical manufacturers, importers, or employers evaluating chemicals shall classify the hazards of the chemicals, including determinations regarding when mixtures of the classified chemicals are covered by this section.

When classifying mixtures manufactures produce or import, chemical manufacturers and importers of mixtures may rely on the information provided on the current safety data sheets of the individual ingredients, except where the chemical manufacturer or importer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable diligence should know, that the safety data sheet misstates or omits information required by this section.

Mold Remediation

Disposal. 

Cleaning.

Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

A municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) receives household waste. It may also receive other types of nonhazardous wastes, such as commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste, and industrial nonhazardous solid waste. 

Non-hazardous solid waste is regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA, landfills that are permitted to take this waste are known as Subtitle D landfills.

N

North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code

A six-digit coding system, developed by the United States Census Bureau and the Office of Management and Budget, which categorizes the principal product or group of products produced or distributed, or services rendered at a site’s physical location.

NPDES (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System)

A provision of the Clean Water Act which prohibits discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States unless a special permit is issued by EPA, a State, or where delegated, a tribal government on an Indian reservation.

O

On-site

The location where hazardous waste is located and all of the adjacent parts of that location to which the waste can be transported without requiring a hazardous waste manifest.

Off-site

Any location hazardous waste originated from or is destined to, for which a hazardous waste manifest is required for shipment.

Off-site Collection Site

A site that receives and accumulates universal waste from off-site.

Open-Loop Recycling System

A recycling system that does not meet the criteria for “closed loop recycling” or “in-line/continuous recycling/reclamation.”

Operator

The person responsible for the overall operation of the facility.

Oregon DEQ

The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.

OSHA: Hazardous Substance

OSHA defines a hazardous substance as “any substance or chemical that is a ‘health hazard’ or ‘physical hazard,’ including:

  • Chemicals that are carcinogens, toxic agents, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers.
  • Agents that damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.
  • Chemicals that are combustible, explosive, flammable, oxidizers, pyrophorics, unstable-reactive or water-reactive; and
  • Chemicals which, in the course of normal handling, use, or storage, may produce or release dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, mists or smoke that may have any of the previously mentioned characteristics.”
OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard

(Haz Comm) requires all employees to be trained in label reading and SDS review for chemicals they may encounter in the workplace.

(HCS) is designed to ensure that information about chemical and toxic substance hazards in the workplace and associated protective measures is disseminated to workers and that the workers understand how to apply this knowledge to complete their job tasks safely.

Under HCS, manufacturers must provide a safety data sheet (SDS) for all hazardous substances they produce or import.

The SDS conveys physical and health impacts, as well as procedures for exposures, spills, leaks, and disposal to employees and any downstream customers. Materials in transport must be properly labeled according to the HCS (i.e., flammable, explosive, radioactive), as well as meet DOT requirements.

(Haz Comm) requires all employees to be trained in label reading and SDS review for chemicals they may encounter in the workplace.

(HCS) is designed to ensure that information about chemical and toxic substance hazards in the workplace and associated protective measures is disseminated to workers and that the workers understand how to apply this knowledge to complete their job tasks safely.

Under HCS, manufacturers must provide a safety data sheet (SDS) for all hazardous substances they produce or import.

The SDS conveys physical and health impacts, as well as procedures for exposures, spills, leaks, and disposal to employees and any downstream customers. Materials in transport must be properly labeled according to the HCS (i.e., flammable, explosive, radioactive), as well as meet DOT requirements.

Overlapping Terminology

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses the term hazardous waste to protect human health and the environment (40 CFR 261 and 268).

Department of Transportation (DOT) uses the term hazardous materials to ensure materials are managed safely in all modes of transport—air, road, marine, and rail (49 CFR 172).

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) uses the term hazardous substances and focuses on worker safety (29 CFR).

Owner

The person who owns the facility or part of the facility.

P

PCBs

Polychlorinated biphenyls are oily liquids or solids, clear to yellow in color, with no smell or taste.

They are regulated by the EPA under TSCA due to their persistence in the environment and toxicity (a proven carcinogen).

Treatment methods, depending on concentration and physical state are; incineration, landfill and dichlorination.

PCBs can be found in old electrical transformers, light ballasts, capacitors and hydraulic equipment.

Pesticide

Any substance or combination of substances intended for the purpose of defoliating plants or for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating insects, fungi, weeds, rodents, or predatory animals; including but not limited to defoliants, desiccants, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and nematocides.

Pesticide Collection Program

A program that collects waste pesticides for subsequent treatment or disposal.

A pesticide collection program may be operated by federal, state or local municipal entities as well as by persons in private industry.

Pesticide Residue

A hazardous waste that is generated from pesticide operations and pesticide management, such as, from pesticide use (except household use), manufacturing, repackaging, formulation, bulking and mixing, and spills.

Pesticide residue includes, but is not limited to, 1) unused commercial pesticides, 2) tank or container bottoms or sludges, 3) pesticide spray mixture, container rinsing’s and pesticide equipment washings, and 4) substances generated from pesticide treatment, recycling, disposal, and rinsing spray and pesticide equipment.

Pesticide residue does not include pesticide-containing materials that are used according to label instructions, and substances such as, but not limited to treated soil, treated wood, foodstuff, water, vegetation, and treated seeds where pesticides were applied according to label instructions.

PFAS

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of man-made chemicals that includes PFOA, PFOS, GenX, and many other chemicals. PFAS have been manufactured and used in a variety of industries around the globe, including in the United States since the 1940s. PFOA and PFOS have been the most extensively produced and studied of these chemicals. Both chemicals are very persistent in the environment and in the human body – meaning they do not break down and they can accumulate over time. There is evidence that exposure to PFAS can lead to adverse human health effects.

Pharmaceutical Waste

Pharma.

Physical Hazard

Per OSHA it is a chemical that is classified as posing one of the following hazardous effects: explosive; flammable (gases, aerosols, liquids, or solids); oxidizer (liquid, solid or gas); self-reactive; pyrophoric (liquid or solid); self-heating; organic peroxide; corrosive to metal; gas under pressure; or in contact with water emits flammable gas.

Point Of Generation

The point where a waste first becomes hazardous.

POTW (Publicly Owned Treatment Works)

Wastewater treatment works owned by a state, unit of local government, or Indian tribe and usually designed to treat domestic wastewaters.

Profile

Waste profiles are used by facilities that receive, store, treat and/or dispose of waste, particularly hazardous and industrial waste streams.

They are typically specific to each facility or company, meaning there is no set standard or format. Their primary purpose is to ensure that the waste being sent to them is acceptable according under their facility operating permit(s).

They ask for descriptions of the waste streams in terms of: Who generated the waste, how it was generated, its hazards, it is chemical composition and concentration, it is physical characteristics and any regulatory information (such as EPA and/or state waste codes).

R

Radioactive Waste

Radioactive waste is produced by industries such as mining, nuclear power generation, defense, medicine, and certain types of scientific research. There are five general categories of radioactive waste:

  • High-Level Waste
  • Transuranic Waste
  • Uranium or Thorium Mill Tailing
  • Low-Level Waste
  • Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM)
RCRA

The federal law regulating hazardous waste

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 S.S. C. Section 6901 et. seq., as amended, the major U.S. federal legislation first adopted in 1976 that governs the management of solid waste and hazardous waste in the U.S.

The EPA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 was created to protect human health and the environment from threats that improper disposal of contaminants may cause. It helps ensure that waste is managed in an environmentally sound manner

RCRA Empty Container

A container that last contained a RCRA Regulated hazardous waste, besides compressed gasses, acute hazardous waste that is F-listed, P-listed hazardous waste or hazardous waste pharmaceuticals. Is considered RCRA empty if:

  • You have removed as much out of the container, using common practical means (pouring, pumping, etc.), and no more than 1 inch (2.5 cm) of material remains on the bottom.
  • Container that are less than or equal to 119 gallons, it is considered RCRA empty if no more than 3% by weight of the total capacity of the container remains in the container (or inner liner).
  • Containers greater than 119 gallons in size, it is considered RCRA empty if no more than 0.3% by weight of the total capacity remains in the container remains.
  • Containers that held hazardous waste compressed gasses, the container is empty when the pressure in the container approaches normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Containers that held acute hazardous waste, the container must be triple rinsed using a solvent capable of removing the waste or cleaned by another method that has been shown in the scientific literature (or by tests conducted by the generator) to achieve equivalent removal. If the container has an inner liner that prevents contact with the container, then the inner liner can be removed, and the container can be deemed RCRA empty.
RCRA Permit

The hazardous waste management facility permit that is required to operate a hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facility.

RCRA Site Identification Number

The number assigned by the state to each generator, transporter, and treatment, storage, and disposal facility. This ID number typically begins with three letters, followed by a nine digits.

Reactivity

The tendency of a substance to undergo chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, and to release energy.

The characteristic which identifies hazardous wastes that readily explode or undergo violent reactions.

Reclamation

A process to recover a usable product, or to regenerate a usable material.

Examples include recovery of lead from spent batteries and regeneration of spent solvents.

Recordkeeping

A Generator must retain records for three years, including:

  • Manifests
  • All notices and documentation associated with Land Disposal Restrictions
  • Biennial Reports
  • Exception Reports
  • Any test results, waste analyzes, or similar information related to the waste shipped off-site
  • Your inspection schedule and reports. (Specific inspection requirements are found in 40 CFR 265.15.)
Recycle

The process of converting waste into reusable material.

Recycling

The use, reuse, or reclamation of a waste material (40 CFR 261.2).

Remediation / Soil Excavation / Demolition

Means.

Remediation Waste

Means all solid and hazardous waste, and all media (including groundwater, surface water, soils and sediments) and debris that contain listed hazardous wastes or that themselves exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic and are managed for implementing cleanup.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Federal Act that gives EPA the authority to regulate hazardous waste from cradle to grave. Enacted in 1976, RCRA was established to protect human health and the environment from the improper handling of solid waste and to encourage resource conservation.

Refers to the federal statute in the United States that governs the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste, enacted in 1976.

Reuse

Use of a product more than once in its same form for the same or different purpose without substantial alteration.

S

Safety Data Sheet (SDS) / Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

Manufacturers are required by law to provide material safety data sheets on all products they manufacture and sell. These data sheets provide information on the physical, chemical, and toxic properties of a product.

Provides information about health risks, safety precautions, first aid procedures, disposal requirements, and other data on various chemical products.

Is a written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical that is prepared in accordance with paragraph 1910.1200(g) of the Hazard Communication Standard

SARA 313

Title III, Section 313, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. Establishes the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory. (See also TRI).

Satellite Accumulation Area (SSA)

Large quantity generators (LQGs) and small quantity generators (SQGs) may accumulate hazardous waste in SAAs, provided it is managed in accordance with all the provisions in 40 CFR section 262.15.

Generators accumulating hazardous waste in satellite accumulation areas must comply with container standards.

SSA containers must be in good condition, compatible with the hazardous waste, and closed during accumulation, with limited exceptions.

SSA containers must be marked with words that identify the hazards of the contents, the date the first drop went in and the words “Hazardous Waste”

When up to 55 gallons of hazardous waste (or 1 quart of liquid acute hazardous waste or 1 kg of solid acute hazardous waste) is generated in a satellite accumulation area (SAA):

The generators must comply with the accumulation limits in SAAs and remove the waste from the SAA within three consecutive calendar days.

Once an SAA waste container is moved to the Generators central accumulation area, the Generator needs to date the container again to indicate the start of the 90- or 180-day on-site accumulation period.

Sift-proof portable tanks and closed bulk bins

To be deemed sift-proof, the completed package may not permit the escape of any of the hazardous material contained therein. 

It is the shipper’s responsibility to ensure that the packaging provides sift-proof containment at the time of shipment and will continue to provide containment until the package reaches its final destination.

All bulk packages must be filled so that under conditions normally incident to transportation, there will be no identifiable (without the use of instruments) release of hazardous materials to the environment.

Secondary Containment

Any of several devices, such as liners and catch basins, which contain releases of hazardous materials stored in tanks, drums, or other containers, or transported through piping.

SIC Code

Is a four-digit numerical code assigned by the U.S. government to a business in order to identify its primary line of business.

This number indicates a company’s primary line of business which is determines by the code definition that generates the highest revenue for that company at a specific location during the previous year.

Site

The land or water area where any facility or activity is physically located or conducted, including adjacent land used in connection with the facility or activity.

Small Quantity Generators / SQG

Small quantity generator. Any facility or organization that generates greater than 100 kilograms and less than (or equal to) 1,000 kilograms of hazardous waste in a calendar month. May typically accumulate hazardous waste on site for up to 180 days.

May accumulate their waste for up to 180 days before shipping it off-site.

If the nearest treatment, storage, disposal, or recycling facility to which they can send their waste is more than 200 miles away, they may accumulate their waste for 270 days.

Small Quantity Handler of Universal Waste

A universal waste handler who does not accumulate more than 5,000 kilograms total of universal waste (batteries, pesticides, hazardous waste lamps, or thermostats, calculated collectively) at any time.

Solar Panels

M.

Solid/Sludge Residual

Any solid or semi-solid waste generated from a municipal, commercial, or industrial wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility, exclusive of the treatment effluent from a wastewater treatment plant.

Solid Waste

“Solid” is somewhat of a misnomer as the regulations define solid wastes as solid, liquid, semi-solid, or containerized gaseous materials.

It is a solid waste if it is:

  • Discarded or has served its intended purpose;
  • Abandoned;
  • Being recycled by being placed on the ground (and that is not the normal use), burned for energy recovery, reclaimed, or accumulated for more than 1 year.
  • Inherently waste-like (e.g., dioxin wastes).

A material (solid, liquid or gas) that has been disposed. Management of solid wastes are subject to federal regulations but are typically regulated at the state or local level.

A solid waste is any material that is discarded by being: Abandoned: The term abandoned means thrown away. A material is abandoned if it is disposed of, burned, incinerated, or sham recycled.

Source Code

GXX Code describes the type of process or activity (i.e., the source) from which a hazardous waste was generated.

Link

Source Reduction

The reduction or elimination of waste at the source of generation, usually within a process. Source reduction activities include process modifications, feedstock substitutions, improvements in feedstock purity, housekeeping and management practices, increases in the efficiency of machinery, and recycling within a process. Source reduction implies any action that reduces the toxicity or the amount of waste exiting a process.

Spent Materials

Any material that has been used and, as a result of contamination, can no longer serve the purpose for which it was produced without undergoing regeneration, reclamation, or reprocessing. This includes things like spent solvents, spent activated carbon, spent catalysts, and spent acids.

Any used material that can no longer serve its original purpose without undergoing processing, such as regeneration or reclamation. Examples include spent catalysts, spent solvents and spent acids.

Spill Clean-ups and Spill Waste

Do not overpay… ER companies charge for everything from cell phone usage to pens

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code

The SIC coding system was replaced by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).

State-Only Hazardous Waste

Waste that is defined as hazardous in the State of origin.

Storage

The holding of hazardous waste for a temporary period at the end of which the hazardous waste is treated, disposed or stored elsewhere.

System

A process or series of processes acting together to perform a single operation on a hazardous waste stream. May consist of a number of units, or single pieces of equipment, e.g., individual tanks, surface impoundments, or distillation systems.

T

Tank Cleaning

A.

TCLP

Acronym for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, a lab test designed to determine whether a solid waste is a hazardous waste because it releases toxic chemicals in leachate.

Toxic Substance

Any substance in a gaseous, liquid, or solid state listed pursuant to Title III, Section 313 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, or any substance added by the Commission under the authority of ORS 465.009 and OAR 340-135-0040.

Toxicity

The degree to which something is poisonous.

The characteristic which identifies hazardous wastes that are likely to leach dangerous concentrations of toxic chemicals into groundwater.

Toxics Use Reduction

In-plant changes in production or other processes or operations, products or raw materials that reduce, avoid or eliminate the use or production of toxic substances without creating substantial new risks to public health, safety, and the environment.

Reduction may be proportional to increases or decreases in production or other business changes. Reduction means application of any of the following techniques:

Input substitution, by replacing a toxic substance or raw material used in a production or other process or operation with a non-toxic or less toxic substance.

Product reformulation, by substituting for an existing end product, an end product which is non-toxic or less toxic upon use, release, or disposal.

Production or other process or operation modernization, by upgrading or replacing existing equipment and methods with other equipment and methods.

Production or other process or operation redesign or modifications.

Improved operation and maintenance of production processes or equipment or methods, and modifications or additions to existing equipment or methods, including techniques such as improved housekeeping practices, system adjustments, product and process inspections, or production or process changes.

Recycling, reuse, or extended use of toxics by using equipment or methods that become an integral part of the production or other process or operation of concern, including but not limited to filtration and other methods.

Transfer Facility

Any transportation-related facility, including loading docks, parking areas, storage areas, and other similar areas where shipments of hazardous waste are held for no longer than 10 days during the normal course of transportation.

Transfer Station

A facility where both residential and commercial garbage collection vehicles empty the contents of their trucks.

Transport of Waste from VSQG to LQG

Under the provisions of the 2016 Generator Improvements Rule (NOTE: Always make sure your state has adopted a provision before using it) a very small quantity generator (VSQG) can ship their waste to a large quantity generator (LQG) under the control of the same company for consolidation before sending it on to a designated facility if the VSQG complies with the conditions at section 262.14(a)(5)(viii).

When being sent from the VSQG to the LQG, the waste can be transported without using a hazardous waste manifest.

It will need to be managed as LQG waste once it is received at the LQG.

Its 90-day accumulation starts on the day it reaches the LQG.

Transporters

Any business or individual engaged in the off-site transportation of hazardous waste by air, rail, highway, or water.

Treatability Group

Describes the grouping of hazardous wastes that can be treated to similar concentrations using identical technologies.

Treatment

Any method, technique, or process, including neutralization, designed to change the physical, chemical, or biological character or composition of any hazardous waste so as to:

  • Neutralize such waste.
  • Recover energy or material resources from the waste.
  • Render such waste non-hazardous or less hazardous.
  • Make it safer for transport, storage, or disposal; or
  • Make it amenable for recovery, amenable for storage, or reduce its volume.
Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility (TSD or TSDF)

A facility that treats, stores or disposes of hazardous waste and is subject to RCRA permit requirements.

Facilities engaged in the treatment, storage, or disposal of hazardous waste.

A licensed facility where hazardous waste is stored, treated, or disposed. Universal Waste. Hazardous wastes that have simplified management standards that ensure safe handling, recycling, or disposal.

TRI

Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, a data collection system for toxic chemical releases established under SARA Title III, Section 313.

TRI Constituent

The specific toxic chemical(s) identified by a Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number, which was reported on the TRI report (Form R).

TSCA

The Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) authorizes the EPA to regulate and screen all chemicals produced or imported into the United States to prevent unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.

TSDF

The final link in RCRA’s cradle-to-grave concept is the treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF) that follows the generator and transporter in the chain of waste management activities. The regulations pertaining to TSDFs are more stringent than those that apply to generators or transporters.

A TSDF is the final resting place for a hazardous waste.

U

UN Rated Containers / DOT Shippable Containers

DOT approved containers are approved by the U.S. Department of Transportation for shipping hazardous materials in the United States. UN rated drums are approved by DOT.

UN Rated Drums

Have a UN code marking, stamp or label on the bottom or side of the container.

The “UN” is circled and followed by an alpha numeric code, for example: 1H2/X1.2/250/14/USA/+AQ2121

The first number indicates type of container:

1=Drum

2=Barrel

3=Jerrican

4=Box

5=Bag

6=Composite packaging

The letter indicates the material the container is made of:

A=Steel

B=Aluminum

C=Natural Wood

D=Plywood

F=Reconstructed Wood

G=Fiberboard

H=Plastic

L=Textile

M=Paper, multi-wall

N=Other metal

P=Glass, Porcelain, Stoneware

The second number is specific to drums and indicates

1=Closed Head (non-removable)

2=Open Head (removable) These containers usually have lids.

The second section always starts with X, Y, or Z which shows the hazard level the package can accept.

X=High Hazard, Packing Group I, II, or III

Y=Medium Hazard, Packing Group II or III

Z=Low Hazard, Packing Group III only

The number refers to the maximum gross mass in kg that this package can carry for Solids or Sealed Inner Packaging’s.

A number with decimal, for example 1.2, means it is rated for liquids with a specific gravity of 1.2

A number such as 250, means it is rated to weigh a maximum of 250 kg.

The third Section – there is an “S” for Solids or a number, such as 250

The S indicates you can use this container for solids or liquids packed in inner packages. You cannot use it for free liquids.

If there is a number there instead, then the container is a single package designed to hold liquids and the number is the hydrostatic test pressure in kpa.

The minimum kpa for a PGI liquid is 250

Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Sections

Fourth – Is the last two digits from the year of manufacture; 18 = 2018

Fifth – Country of manufacture; USA

Sixth – Manufacturers code: unique to each manufacturer or certifying agency.

Underlying Hazardous Constituent

Underlying hazardous constituents (UHCs) in hazardous wastes generated by Small Quantity Generators (SQGs) and Large Quantity Generators (LQGs) must be treated before the waste can be placed into a hazardous waste landfill.

The underlying hazardous constituents may not be the reason the waste is considered hazardous. They are different than hazardous constituents or groundwater protection hazardous constituents.

Underlying hazardous constituents are identified nationally by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations.

Universal Waste

Category of waste materials designated as “hazardous waste” but containing materials that are very common, such as batteries, pesticides, bulbs, and mercury-containing equipment.

  • Light tubes
  • Batteries
  • Pesticides
  • Aerosols

Hazardous waste that is subject to a specific set of streamlined management standards for the purpose of encouraging the collection for proper recycling or disposal of the waste.

Universal waste types are listed in 40 CFR 273.1 and OAR 340-113-0010 and presently include batteries, mercury-containing thermostats, certain pesticide wastes (pesticide wastes collected during a ban or recall activity or by a pesticide collection program), and hazardous waste lamps.

Includes batteries, some pesticides, thermostats, certain lamps, and certain aerosol cans. See 40 CFR 273.

Commonly recycled wastes with special management provisions intended to facilitate recycling. There are four categories of universal wastes: hazardous waste batteries, hazardous waste pesticides that have been recalled or collected in waste pesticide collection programs, hazardous waste lamps, and hazardous waste mercury-containing equipment.

Used Oil

Any oil that has been refined from crude oil, or any synthetic oil, which has been used as a lubricant, coolant (non-contact heat transfer fluids), hydraulic fluid or for similar uses and as a result of such use is contaminated by physical or chemical impurities.

Used oil includes, but is not limited to, used motor oil, gear oil, greases, machine cutting and coolant oils, hydraulic fluids, brake fluids, electrical insulation oils, heat transfer oils and refrigeration oils.

Used oil does not include used oil mixed with hazardous waste except as allowed in 40 CFR 279.10(b), oil (crude or synthetic) based products used primarily as solvents, antifreeze, wastewaters from which the oil has been recovered, and oil contaminated media or debris.

Used oil collection center

Any site or facility that is registered, licensed, permitted or recognized by a state, county or municipal government to manage used oil and accepts, aggregates and/or stores used oil collected from used oil generators who bring used oil to the collection center in shipments of no more than 55 gallons under the provisions of 40 CFR 279.24.

Used oil collection centers may also accept used oil from household do-it yourselfers.

Used oil generator

Any person, at a single location, whose act or process produces used oil or whose act first causes used oil to become subject to regulation.

Used oil mixture

Any mixture of used oil as generated and another waste.

Used oil processor/re-refiner

A facility that processes used oil.

Used oil transfer facility

Any transportation related facility including loading docks, parking areas, storage areas, and other areas where shipments of used oil are held for more than 24 hours during the normal course of transportation and not longer than 35 days.

Used oil transporter

Any person who transports used oil, any person who collects used oil from more than one generator and transports the collected oil, and owners and operators of used oil transfer facilities.

Used oil transporters may consolidate or aggregate loads of used oil for purposes of transportation but, with the following exception, may not process used oil.

Transporters may conduct incidental processing operations that occur in the normal course of used oil transportation (e.g., settling and water separation), but that are not designed to produce (or make more amenable for production of) used oil derived products or used oil fuel.

Used or Reused

A material that is:

  • Employed as an ingredient (including use as an intermediate) in an industrial process to make a product.

For example, distillation bottoms from one process used as a feedstock in another process.

However, a material will not satisfy this condition if distinct components of the material are recovered as separate end products, such as when metals are recovered from metal containing secondary materials.

  • Employed in a particular function or application as an effective substitute for a commercial product.

For example, spent pickle liquor used as phosphorous precipitant and sludge conditioner in wastewater treatment.

V

Very Small Quantity Generator (VSQG)

May not store more than 1,000 kg (2,200 lbs.) of hazardous waste or 1 kg (2.2 lbs.) of acute hazardous waste on site at any time.

Must ensure delivery of your hazardous waste to an off-site treatment or disposal facility that is one of the following (or if you treat or dispose of your hazardous waste on site, your facility also must be):

  • A state or federally regulated hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility (TSDF).
  • A facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a state to manage municipal or industrial solid waste.
  • A facility that uses, reuses, or legitimately recycles the waste (or treats the waste prior to use, reuse, or recycling).
  • A universal waste handler or destination facility subject to the universal waste requirements of 40 CFR Part 273. Universal wastes are hazardous wastes such as batteries, recalled and collected pesticides, mercury-containing thermostats and other equipment, mercury-containing lamps, or aerosol cans.

Some states have additional requirements for VSQGs.

W

WA State Only Waste

Waste regulated as Dangerous Waste by the Washington Department of Ecology

Waste with EPA waste and/or WA state waste codes:

WA State Codes: WT01, WT02, WP01, WP02, WPCB, WP03, WSC2

Is a WA state special waste

Waste

In general, a waste is a material that a generator (business or organization) does not want or is not going to use.

Waste Analysis Plan (WAP)

Refers to any plan that outlines the necessary procedures to ensure proper treatment, storage, or disposal of hazardous waste.

Waste Characterization
Waste Minimization

Describes the process of reducing the amount of waste produced by a person or business.

Waste Management Unit

A contiguous area of land which there is a significant likelihood of mixing of waste constituents in the same area.

Waste Minimization

See the definition for Hazardous Waste Minimization. (no definition for this term)

Waste Pending Analysis

The point of generation for hazardous waste is when it is first produced or first becomes subject to hazardous waste regulations, not when a generator first receives the waste analysis results.

Hazardous waste generator regulations apply as soon as the waste is generated, and the accumulation period applies either as soon as the waste is generated or when waste was removed from the satellite accumulation area.

If a generator is unsure if the waste being tested is a hazardous waste or not, the generator must manage it as a hazardous waste and label the containers accordingly.

Instead of the words “hazardous waste” they could use the words “hazardous waste pending analysis” to make it clear that the results of the analysis have yet to come in.

If the waste is determined to be non-hazardous, the generator can remove the hazardous waste labels.

Waste Stream

In general industry terminology, it can sometimes be used interchangeably with Waste. Also, a reference to the general flow of a type of waste—or a combination of several wastes—from a facility or organization all the way through to recycling or disposal. One facility, for example, might produce a scrap metal waste stream and a used oil waste stream.

Cumulative flow of waste material from generation to treatment to final disposition.

Waste Types

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

Hazardous Wastes

Industrial Wastes

Agricultural Wastes

Household Hazardous Waste (HHW

Construction and Demolition Debris

Industrial/Commercial Waste

Universal Waste

Regulated Bio-Medical Waste.

Used Electronic Equipment.

Used Oil.

Waste Tires.

Wastewater Treatment Unit

A tank or tank system that receives, treats or stores before treating, an influent wastewater that is a hazardous waste, or that generates and accumulates wastewater treatment sludges that are hazardous wastes.

These units are regulated under either section 402 or 307(b) of the Clean Water Act and release to a POTW/sewer or surface water.

Contact Us

11615 North Lombard Street, Portland, OR 97203

5812 S Adams St # B, Tacoma, WA 98409

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